Regional trade agreements are multiplying and changing their nature. In 1990, 50 trade agreements were in force. In 2017, there were more than 280. In many trade agreements, negotiations today go beyond tariffs and cover several policy areas relating to trade and investment in goods and services, including rules that go beyond borders, such as competition policy, public procurement rules and intellectual property rights. ATRs, which cover tariffs and other border measures, are „flat“ agreements; THE RTAs, which cover more policy areas at the border and at the back of the border, are „deep“ agreements. Maintaining trade flows will be essential to limit the negative effects of the COVID 19 pandemic. Learn about data and analysis to develop preferential trade agreements. Caroline Freund is Global Director of Trade, Investment and Competitiveness. Previously, she was a Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics. She also worked as Chief Economist for the Middle East and North Africa at the World Bank, having worked for nearly a decade in the International Trade Department of the Research Department. Freund began his career in the International Finance Department of the Federal Reserve Board and spent a year in the IMF`s research department.
She has published extensively in academic journals and is the author of Rich People Poor Countries: The Rise of Emerging Market Tycoons and their Mega Firms. She is an American citizen with a degree in economics from Columbia University. Deep trade agreements are increasing in number and depth. Find out why they are important for regional integration. The World Bank Group helps its client countries promote regional integration through shared physical and institutional infrastructure. Deep trade agreements are an important institutional infrastructure for regional integration. They reduce business costs and set many rules in which economies are active. If designed effectively, they can improve political cooperation between countries and thus promote international trade and international investment, economic growth and social well-being. For more information, visit our online portal Deep Trade Agreement, which provides new data and analysis on the evolution of the content of preferential trade agreements. Discover data visualizations and dashboards, download recordings and stay up-to-date on the latest searches.
Robert W. Staiger is a Roth Family Professor of Art and Science and Professor of Economics at Dartmouth College. Professor Staiger received his A.B from Williams College in 1980 and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan in 1985. From 1985 to 1991, he was an assistant professor of economics at Stanford University and was promoted to Associate Professor at Stanford in 1991. In 1993, Staiger joined the Department of Economics at the University of Wisconsin, where he remained until his return to Stanford in 2006 to become a holbrook working professor in Commodity Price Studies at the Department of Economics. In 2011, he joined the Wisconsin Department of Economy as a Stockwell Professor of Economics and joined Dartmouth as a Roth Family Distinguished Visiting Scholar during the 2013-14 academic year and joined the Department of Economy in Dartmouth in the fall of 2014.