Vietnam`s trade with Russia and Kazakhstan is particularly intense. According to the WTO, the share of Russian exports to Vietnam has increased dynamically over the past three years: 19.9% in 2016, 34.0% in 2017 and 12.9% in 2018. This growth was due to a sharp increase in exports of cereals, mineral resources, iron and steel, fish and seafood, as well as organic chemicals. Kazakhstan has significantly increased its exports to Vietnam by 39.0% and 3.6% between 2017 and 2018. This is partly due to Kazakhstan`s ongoing export of iron and steel, cereals and lead and lead to Vietnam. Afghanistan has bilateral agreements with the following countries and blocs: The People`s Republic of China has bilateral trade agreements with the blocs, countries and its two specific administrative regions: A second factor is russia`s phased import substitution policy since 2012, which largely coincides with Russia`s accession to the WTO. WTO membership had raised hopes that trade with Russia would benefit from sustainable liberalization. Instead, Russia has gradually taken many steps to promote domestic products and services over foreign products and to encourage the location of production in Russia by foreign companies. Related measures are often contrary to the spirit and/or letter of WTO rules and are at the root of many trade stimuli. Since Russia joined the WTO in 2012, the EU has lodged four WTO disputes against Russia: Armenia will benefit the most from trade with Iran, as it is subject to the economic blockade of Turkey and Azerbaijan and has no common borders with EU member states. The second agreement was signed with Iran in May 2018 and came into force on October 27, 2019. This is a limited three-year agreement.
One year after it comes into force, the parties will begin discussions on a comprehensive free trade agreement. The agreement is limited due to a low level of liberalization. The reduced tariffs cover only 50% of the total volume of trade between the two countries. As far as products are concerned, this means 502 SH codes for the UNION and 360 SH codes for Iran. The agreement on trade and economic cooperation between the Eurasian Economic Union and the People`s Republic of China was signed on 17 May 2018 and will enter into force at the end of October 2019. It is not a free trade agreement, but it does define a uniform format of trade cooperation between the EAEU and China.