74 J Edler and J Yeow, „Connecting demand and supply: The role of intermediation in public procurement of innovation“ (2016) 45(2) Research Policy 412. The European Commission (EC) has signed a joint purchase agreement to ensure a continuous supply of Veklury (remdesivir) from participating countries. This article was written as part of the SHAPES – Smart and Healthy Ageing through People Engaging in Supportive Systems project. THE SHAPES is funded by the European Union`s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research Innovation. Grant agreement number: 857159 – SHAPES – H2020 – SC1-FA-DTS – 2018-2020. 41 F Mennini, N Dimitri, L Gitto, F Lichere and G Piga, „Common Public Markets and European Perspective,“ in G Piga and Tétrai, Law and Economics of Public Procurement Reforms (London, Routledge 2017). The aim of this mechanism is to improve the willingness of EU countries to mitigate serious cross-border health threats, to ensure fairer access to specific medical countermeasures and improved security of supply, as well as fairer prices for participating countries. A common procurement procedure can be launched if at least four Member States, plus the Commission, vote in favour of it and participate in the procurement process. 61 OECD, „Stocktaking report on the immediate public procurement and infrastructure responses to Covid-19“ (June 2020) OECD Policy Response to Coronavirus (Covid-19) (available 14 September 2020). Member States have previously participated in the framework of the Climate Action Directorate-General of the `Common Purchase Contract for Common Auction Platforms`, which organises the auctioning of CO2 allowances in each Member State. 5 Commission, „Guidelines for the use of the public procurement framework in the context of the COVID-19 crisis,“ above, note 3, 1. A public body may acquire from any Commonwealth Treaty authority, department, agency or institution, even if it has not participated in the application on a proposal or invitation to bid, when the request, on proposal or on request for an offer, indicates that it is a cooperative contracting made on behalf of other public bodies. In these cases, a departure from the contracting procedures described in this chapter and the administrative measures and procedures that have been established for the implementation of this chapter is permitted if approved by the Director of the Purchasing and Delivery Division.
27 WHO Regional Office for Europe, „How can voluntary cross-border cooperation in public procurement improve access to health technologies in Europe?“ (2016) Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (the last call given on 15 July 2020). In 2014, the European Public Procurement Agreement (APA) was introduced as an innovative instrument for organising the purchase of vaccines and medicines to prepare for pandemics.